David Clark Little, on the 'Virginal'

Galliard Jig 												William Byrd (1543-1623)

Pavana Chromatica											William Tisdall (1570- ?)

Ballo alla Polacha; Ballo Ongaro; Todescha						Giovanni Picchi (1571-1643)

Pavana													Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625)

Gagliarda 1-5												Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643)

Capriccio 1 (from Livre de 1656)								Johann-Jakob Froberger (1616-1667)

Essercizo 30 Cat Fugue									Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757)

Prelude & Fugue #6 in D Major (Well-Tempered Clavier book 1)	Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
Prelude & Fugue #21 in Bb Major (Well-Tempered Clavier book 1)

Toccata per ogni Modi										Georg Andreas Sorge (1703-1778)


Program duration: 60 minutes including short talks about the music, composers, and instrument.

'Virginal' is an old term for a string-plucking keyboard instrument, or harpsichord, with a rectangular shape, called such because, like a virgin, it soothes with a sweet and gentle voice, according to a Czech physician and minor cleric called Paulus Paulirinus. The 'Virginalists' were a group of English composers from the time of Shakespeare, associated with Queen Elizabeth I, the 'Virgin Queen.' The virginal played today was built by Lynette Tsiang in 1976, after the Italian builder Francesco Poggio (d. 1634). It is a polygonal or 5-sided instrument with one set of brass strings and 52 keys. It is tuned lower than present-day concert pitch (A is at 415 Hz) with the Vallotti Tuning System commonly used for keyboard instruments during the Baroque. The music selected for this program comes from the Renaissance, Baroque, and Early Classical time periods (within a span of about 150 years), by masters from England, Germany, Italy, and Spain. The surprisingly bold and bright sound of the instrument is exploited in the splendid dances, and other forms of music.

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